Whistleblower Protection in Poland – Analysis of the Situation of Polish Officers and Professional Soldiers

Małgorzata Grześków

Full Text of Paper

Issue of Scientific Journal No. 2023-01
Read paper (PDF)

  • Source Type: Journal
  • Document Type: Study
  • Document Language: English
  • Published on: 31. 3. 2023
  • File Format: PDF
  • File Size: 701 kB

Abstract: This paper presents the legal situation of whistleblowers employed as professional soldiers and officers of militarized services in Poland. The starting point of the study is to show the specific nature of employment in the services and to identify the risks that can occur in these organizations. The paper critically analyses the international and European Union solutions that do not regulate in any special way the protection of whistleblowers employed as soldiers and officers. The study also points out the lack of adequate protection at the level of the Polish domestic law. At the same time, it is noted that the ongoing work to implement the Directive (EU) 2019/1937 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Protection of Whistleblowers does not seem to be moving in the direction of increasing this protection. The study also shows significant differences in solutions for the protection of whistleblowers at the national level, which may be due to the cultural and historical conditions.

Key Words: Labour Law; Whistleblower; Whistleblower Protection; Soldiers; Officers; Militarized Services; the European Union; Poland.

In: Societas et iurisprudentia • 2023 • Volume 11 • Issue 1 • Pages 67-88 • ISSN 1339-5467

ORCID: ORCID iDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-8449-898X

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31262/1339-5467/2023/11/1/67-88

URL: http://sei.iuridica.truni.sk/archive/2023/01/SEI-2023-01-Studies-Grzeskow-Malgorzata.pdf

Bibliographic Citation

GRZEŚKÓW, M. Whistleblower Protection in Poland – Analysis of the Situation of Polish Officers and Professional Soldiers. Societas et iurisprudentia [online]. 2023, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 67-88 [cit. 2020-01-01]. ISSN 1339-5467. Available at: https://doi.org/10.31262/1339-5467/2023/11/1/67-88.


Alternative to Silence: Whistleblower Protection in 10 European Countries. In: Transparency International [online]. 2009-11-15 [cit. 2023-01-05]. Available at: https://www.transparency.org/en/publications/alternative-to-silence-whistleblower-protection-in-10-european-countries.

Assistant Attorney General Stuart Delery Delivers Remarks at American Bar Association’s 10th National Institute on the Civil False Claims Act and Qui Tam Enforcement [2014-06-05]. In: United States Department of Justice [online]. 2014-09-17 [cit. 2023-01-05]. Available at: https://www.justice.gov/opa/speech/assistant-attorney-general-stuart-delery-delivers-remarks-american-bar-association-s-10th.

CALL, A. C., G. S. MARTIN, N. Y. SHARP and J. H. WILDE. Whistleblowers and Outcomes of Financial Misrepresentation Enforcement Actions. Journal of Accounting Research [online]. 2018, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 123-171 [cit. 2023-01-05]. ISSN 1475-679X. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-679x.12177.

CHRONOWSKA, E. Mobbing i dyskryminacja w środowisku pracy funkcjonariuszy Służby Więziennej. Facta Ficta [online]. 2021, nr 2, pp. 185-203 [cit. 2023-01-05]. ISSN 2719-8278. Available at: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5795703.

Civil Law Convention on Corruption [1999-11-04].

Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 [1978-10-13].

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council and the European Economic and Social Committee – Strengthening Whistleblower Protection at EU Level [2018-04-23]. COM (2018) 214 final.

Consolidated Version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. OJ EU C 326, 2012-10-26, pp. 1-390.

Criminal Law Convention on Corruption [1999-01-27].

Directive (EU) 2016/943 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 June 2016 on the Protection of Undisclosed Know-how and Business Information (Trade Secrets) against Their Unlawful Acquisition, Use and Disclosure. OJ EU L 157, 2016-06-15, pp. 1-18.

Directive (EU) 2019/1937 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2019 on the Protection of Persons Who Report Breaches of Union Law. OJ EU L 305, 2019-11-26, pp. 17-56.

Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act [2010-07-21].

False Claims Act (FCA) [1863]. 31 U.S.C. 3729.

FEINSTEIN, S., T. DEVINE, K. PENDER, C. ALLEN, R. NAWA and M. SHEPARD. Are Whistleblowing Laws Working? A Global Study of Whistleblower Protection Litigation [online]. 1st ed. London: International Bar Association, 2021. 81 p. [cit. 2023-01-05]. Available at: https://www.ibanet.org/article/EE76121D-1282-4A2E-946C-E2E059DD63DA.

GOOKIN, P. DoD Whistleblower Protection: Military Personnel: “What You Need to Know”. In: Department of Defense Office of Inspector General [online]. 2014. 16 p. [cit. 2023-01-05]. Available at: https://www.dodig.mil/Portals/48/Documents/Programs/Whistleblower/What-Military-Members-Need-To-Know.pdf.

GRZEŚKÓW, M. Nawiązywanie stosunków zatrudnienia w służbach zmilitaryzowanych. 1. wyd. Warszawa: C. H. Beck, 2020. 199 p. ISBN 978-83-8198-315-0.

GRZEŚKÓW, M. Ochrona sygnalistów – funkcjonariuszy służb zmilitaryzowanych w świetle dyrektywy Parlamentu Europejskiego i Rady (UE) 2019/1937 w sprawie ochrony osób zgłaszających naruszenia prawa Unii. In: A. GÓRNICZ-MULCAHY, M. LEWANDOWICZ-MACHNIKOWSKA and A. TOMANEK, red. Pro opere perfecto gratias agimus: Księga jubileuszowa dedykowana Profesorowi Tadeuszowi Kuczyńskiemu [online]. 1. wyd. Wrocław: Uniwersytet Wrocławski, Wydział Prawa, Administracji i Ekonomii, 2022, pp. 127-135 [cit. 2023-01-05]. E-Monografie, nr 201. ISBN 978-83-66601-90-1. Available at: https://doi.org/10.34616/145142.

Guide on Whistleblowing in the Defence and Security Sector [online]. 1st ed. Oslo: Centre for Integrity in the Defence Sector, 2020. 25 p. [cit. 2023-01-05]. Guides to Good Governance, no. 10. ISBN 978-82-7924-107-2. Available at: https://www.nato.int/nato_static_fl2014/assets/pdf/2020/11/pdf/201105-BI-GGG10-en.pdf.

History and Legislation. In: Service Complaints Ombudsman for the Armed Forces [online]. 2023 [cit. 2023-01-05]. Available at: https://www.scoaf.org.uk/about-us/history-and-legislation.

JACKSON, A. Beyond Snowden: Understanding the Military Whistleblower Protection Act. In: JAG Reporter [online]. 2019. 7 p. [cit. 2023-01-05]. Available at: https://www.jagreporter.af.mil/Portals/88/2019%20Articles/Documents/20190822%20Jackson.pdf?ver=wqWFQ_YB3zbMfvdx4NZIdQ%3D%3D.

KOBROŃ-GĄSIOROWSKA, Ł. Whistleblower w prawie europejskim – ochrona whistleblowera czy informacji. Roczniki Administracji i Prawa [online]. 2018, vol. 18, nr 2, pp. 129-142 [cit. 2023-01-05]. ISSN 2720-7552. Available at: https://doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0013.1774.

KUCZYŃSKI, T., E. MAZURCZAK-JASIŃSKA and J. STELINA. Stosunek służbowy. 1. wyd. Warszawa: C. H. Beck, 2011. 523 p. System Prawa Administracyjnego, t. 11. ISBN 978-83-255-2580-4.

KUN-BUCZKO, M. Position of Whistleblowers in Polish Legal Order. Przegląd Ustawodawstwa Gospodarczego [online]. 2021, nr 2, pp. 41-49 [cit. 2023-01-05]. ISSN 0137-5490. Available at: https://doi.org/10.33226/0137-5490.2021.2.5.

KURCZ, B. Dyrektywy Wspólnoty Europejskiej i ich implementacja do prawa krajowego. 1. wyd. Kraków: Zakamycze, 2004. 509 p. ISBN 83-7333-444-0.

Law of March 11, 2022, on Homeland Defense [2022]. Journal of Laws of Poland, 2022, item 655.

Law on Denunciation Ref. No. 03/2011/QH13 [2011-11-11].

Law on Denunciation Ref. No. 25/2018/QH14 [2018-06-12].

Law on the Parliamentary Military Commissioner of Bosnia and Herzegovina [2009-07-07]. Official Gazette of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2009, No. 51-2009.

MACIEJKO, W. and P. SZUSTAKIEWICZ, red. Stosunek służbowy w formacjach mundurowych. 1. wyd. Warszawa: C. H. Beck, 2015. 352 p. ISBN 978-83-255-7699-8.

Military Whistleblower Protection Act of 1988 (MWPA), as amended at Title 10, United States Code, Section 1034.

NYRERÖD, T. and G. SPAGNOLO. Myths and Numbers on Whistleblower Rewards. Regulation & Governance [online]. 2021, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 82-97 [cit. 2023-01-05]. ISSN 1748-5991. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/rego.12267.

Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 [1970-12-29].

OKLEJAK, T. and K. WILKOŁASKA-ŻUROMSKA. Przeciwdziałanie mobbingowi i dyskryminacji w służbach mundurowych: Analiza i zalecenia. 1. wyd. Warszawa: Biuro Rzecznika Praw Obywatelskich, 2018. 69 p. Biuletyn Rzecznika Praw Obywatelskich, nr 5. ISSN 0860-7958.

Ombudsman’s General Speech to the Prime Minister Ref. No. III.7050.7.2014.TO [2015-11-03].

Ombudsman’s General Speech to the Prime Minister Ref. No. KMP.570.1.2018.RK [2018-04-16].

Parliamentary Military Commissioner. In: Parliamentary Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina [online]. 2023 [cit. 2023-01-05]. Available at: https://www.parlament.ba/committee/read/31?lang=en.

Parliamentary Ombudsman (Finland). In: European Network of National Human Rights Institutions [online]. 2023 [cit. 2023-01-05]. Available at: https://ennhri.org/our-members/finland-parliamentary-ombudsman/.

Projekt ustawy nr UC101: Projekt ustawy o ochronie osób zgłaszających naruszenia prawa. In: Rządowe Centrum Legislacji [online]. 2021-10-18 [cit. 2023-01-05]. Available at: https://legislacja.gov.pl/projekt/12352401#xd_co_f=ZTFiMmJkNGQtM2EzOS00YzI2LWEzZDktNWNkZmExY2ZlYWIy~.

Resolution No. 51/191 [United Nations Declaration against Corruption and Bribery in International Commercial Transactions] [1996-12-16]. United Nations General Assembly, 1996, UN Doc. A/RES/51/191.

Resolution No. 58/4 [United Nations Convention against Corruption] [2003-10-31]. United Nations General Assembly, 2003, UN Doc. A/RES/58/4.

SADIKOVIĆ, L. The Military Commissioner of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In: Ombuds Institutions for the Armed Forces: Selected Case Studies [online]. 1st ed. Geneva: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces, 2017, pp. 7-32 [cit. 2023-01-05]. ISBN 978-92-9222-429-5. Available at: https://defenceintegrity.eu/en/publication/ombuds-institutions-armed-forces-selected-case-studies.

South Korea’s Whistleblower Protection and Reward System. In: National Whistleblower Center [online]. 2023 [cit. 2023-01-05]. Available at: https://www.whistleblowers.org/south-koreas-whistleblower-protection-and-reward-system/.

The Parliamentary Commissioner for the Armed Forces. In: Deutscher Bundestag [online]. 2023 [cit. 2023-01-05]. Available at: https://www.bundestag.de/en/parliament/commissioner.

The Parliamentary Ombudsman of Finland. In: Independent Police Complaints Authorities’ Network [online]. 2023 [cit. 2023-01-05]. Available at: https://ipcan.org/members/the-parliamentary-ombudsman-of-finland-2.

United Nations Convention against Corruption [2005-12-14].